Comparison between Mongolian bow and English Longbow
The long bow is an infantry weapon, the Mongol bow is for cavalry.
The english long bow was used to fire arrows in a high arching trajectory, in huge numbers to overwhelm the opposition with a rain of arrows from the sky.Accuracy was not the issue in this case, just shear numbers.
Mongolian bow is a type of compostive recurve bow, they are composed of several different materials, including a wooden core, with horn on the belly (facing the archer) and sinew on the back (away from the archer), all held together with animal glue.
Long bow was a self bow made of wood, and preferred wood was Yew or ash.The bows really are “longbows” being typically 6-7 feet.
More force is stored in to the mongolian bow than a straight longbow
Longbow shooters use a more primitive form of archery equipment that does not generate as much speed. To overcome the disadvantage of slower speeds, longbow archers shoot much heavier arrows. The weight of the arrow allows it to penetrate quite well, even at the slower speeds (more like 150 fps or so). Still, most longbow hunters limit their shots to about 25 yards at the farthest.
Mongolian bow is much shorter than a English long bow and different materials are used in order to take advantage of the properties of each material. Where as atraditional longbow is made from a single natural piece of wood.Also as a mongolian bow belongs to recurve bow, it stores energy in curves at the end of the limbs of the bow.If the two bows have the same draw length and draw weight, the Mongolian (or any Asiatic recurve) should store more energy (and thus shoot further/hit harder assuming identical arrows) as it has a higher initial draw weight due to the recurve and the higher force required to string it to bracing height.A recurved limb will be faster that a straight limb when loosed. This will mean that you don’t need as heavy a draw weight, as the bow shots faster and as long as the arrow can deal with it you get the pay off. A recurve will shoot the same heavy arrows the longbow shoots, but at about 180-200 fps. Experienced recurve hunters can take game animals out to 35 yards or so.
Range – Mongolian bows could shoot up to about 500 yards, but with lighter arrows designed to oppose leather, lamellar, padded or mail armour. English longbows shot a much heavier arrow up to about 300 yards, designed to oppose heavier armour. Add to this that a 100lb recurve bow will shoot Arrow X further than a 100lb longbow will shoot Arrow X. However, someone who can pull a 120lb longbow can usually only pull a 90lb recurve bow, because of the way the weight increases differently throughout the draw length.
Heavier draw weigth bows will need a stiffer (called Spine) and therefore generally heavier arrow, other wise too much power is lost by the arrow over bending, it will not fly stright and may even break. Basically as you loose, the string pushes the arrow forward over coming the inertia, in effect the nock is moving forward while the point is standing still. this is also added to by the fact that the arrow not moving forward as it wants to but is curving past the bow. This means that the arrow is not actually not flyiing straight after it leaves the bow but is rather moving like a snake, for up to 30 feet or more depending on the bow and spine of the arrow.
Draw length to bow length, the longer the draw length, the longer the bow needs to be to reduce the likely hood of the bow breaking as the bow is over drawn. Having recruved and composite limbs counter acts this. A longer bow limb as on an EWB means that although it may have a higher draw weight it will need to use more of that power to actually move the weight of the limbs
Mongolian bow covered in leather and this was weatherproofed.
A fairly typical 110 lb draw longbow VS a 110 lb draw Mongol composite bow
Mongolian recurve bow is overall better performing than the longbow, though the recurve will perform best with lighter arrows for distance, and the longbow better with heavier arrows for penetration.